The development of Smart Grid System
The advancement of technology in the energy sector has caused significant changes to the power grid, such as more distributed generation, increasing role of renewable energy by switching from fossil fuel to renewable sources particularly in the transportation sector. Therefore, MEA has developed the Smart Grid system to balance the system for all sectors, both energy consumers and producers, to have their own management and information linked systems to provide precise power control, and electricity management for both generation sector and consumption sector so that customers will be able to manage their electricity usage to suit their lifestyles and usage habits. Energy storage system was also provided to reduce energy instability issues of some renewable energy power generation systems and to maintain and improve power quality.
The development of Smart Grid system by MEA is in line with the Thailand Smart Grid Development Policy and Plan of B.E.2558-2579 (2015-2036), supporting strategies and the values of MEA or "CHANGE" with the focus in the benefit to customer. MEA has engaged the cross department collaboration and rapidly adjusting work patterns in accordance with technology in order to create new idea or innovations for use in MEA which every working processes are carried out with transparency and efficiency. The progress of development of Smart Grid system invesment activities in 2021 are as follows:
Monitoring & Control
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition/Energy Management System / Distribution Management System (SCADA/EMS/ DMS)
MEA signed the contract of SCADA/EMS/DMS System Replacement Project, which has the modern technology for increasing the control capability of feeder in 12 kV and 24 kV. In 2021, MEA is installing SCADA/EMS/DMS system that communicates with device in substation and distribution through Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) to monitoring and controlling. In addition, SCADA/EMS/DMS System is able to manage energy in electrical system, estimate future energy consumption and makes more efficient control of the system and fixing power outages. There are functions for this system as the following:
1. Real-Time Network Analysis
The Network Analysis functions execute in a sequence referred to as the Real-Time Sequence (RTS). The RTS results allow the user to visualize the current state of the power system, the potential effect of contingencies, and thereby determine if corrective or preventive control action is necessary. The real-time Network Analysis functions are named as follows, where they are listed in the order in which they normally execute as a part of the RTS: Real-Time Model Update (MU), State Estimator (SE), Bus Load Forecast (BLF), Network Parameter Adaptation (NPA) and Security Analysis (SA)
2. System Load Forecast (SLF)
The System Load Forecast (SLF) function is based on a short-term load forecast model to forecast the total power system load for a variable period from the time of the forecast request. These loads correspond to the HV and MV loads served by the power system network with in all service areas. The load values from SLF are capable of being used to support the Network Analysis functions such as Bus Load Forecast.
3. State Estimator (SE)
The State Estimator (SE) function provides consistent, updated, reliable, and most probable power flow solutions of the HV/MV power system using the current network model of the power system along with real-time status and analog measurements, forecasted and scheduled values, and user entries, which for the MV network is based on an unbalanced three-phase model. Solutions for all observable and unobservable portions of the power system are provided.
4. Network Parameter Adaptation (NPA)
The Network Parameter Adaptation (NPA) function provides and maintain parameters that are not directly monitored. The forecasting parameters are adapted from the following information sources:
1. State Estimator solutions
2. Circuit breaker status time and/or load dependencies
3. Statistics of monitored real-time parameters
4. Bus Load Forecast solutions
5. System Load Forecast solutions
6. User adjusted parameters via an interface that allows the on-line tuning of power system results by making changes to network characteristics such as those associated with lines and transformers
5. Security Analysis
Security Analysis (SA) function is used to assess the security of the HV power system under specified contingency conditions. Security Analysis provides the capability to evaluate a contingency involving increase or loss of generation or increase or loss of load by generation reallocation in the external network.
6. Fault Location, Isolation, and System Restoration
The objective of the Fault Location, Isolation, and System Restoration (FLISR) application is to improve customer service by minimizing the duration and extent of forced outages due to real-time faults directly affecting the MV power system network. Whenever sustained faults are detected by FLISR, the Dispatchers are notified by a special FLISR “alarm" indication and, upon acknowledgement, taken directly to that part of a schematic or geographical world-map display where the fault has occurred and where the results of any FLISR actions as well as the fault information reported by FRTUs (such as fault current direction) can be viewed. Furthermore, the Dispatchers are able to quickly navigate from this display to the display where the FLISR recommendations can be viewed.
Load Break Switch/Feeder Remote Terminal Unit (LBS/FRTU)
LBS/FRTU installation and DMS implementation in industrial estates Project. Since industrial estates have a large number of industrial plants, the industrial sector is one of the key mechanisms that will lead Thailand in the national development and enhancement of the country's strong and sustainable competitiveness. MEA, therefore, initiated this project to increase the stability and reliability of the electricity system with the aim of reducing the downtime of electricity supply continuity. In 2021, the installation of LBS / FRTU was expanded to MEA district offices in 18 areas, including important industrial estates, in which LBS/FRTU was tested in connection with the DMS system to monitor and remotely control LBS/FRTU. The installation of LBS/FRTU equipment in Ladkrabang, Bang Plee, Asia and Bang Chan Industrial Estates have been completed.
For more than 20 years, The Metropolitan Electricity Authority has developed Electrical geospatial database under the name of GIS (Geographic Information System) include high resolution land base map and electrical system map in area of responsibility: Bangkok, Nonthaburi and Samut Prakan
Constituents of MEA-GIS
1. HV Network: Route details of 69, 115, 230 KV network from EGAT to MEA terminal station and terminal station to substation.
2. MV Network: Route details of Feeder 12, 24 KV and electrical distribution equipment from Substation to Distribution transformer.
3. LV Network: Route details of Low Voltage cable 230/400 V to customer location through smart meter and Watt-hour meter.
4. Communication network: Route details of Optical Fiber Network.
Main Layer Group in MEA-GIS
1. Land Base: Contain details of landmark points, landmark line, center line, district poly, center line, road edge, building, building line, hydrology, etc.
2. Public Electrical System: Contain details of CCTV, street light, street light control, Pole, overhead & underground streetlight voltage conductor, etc.
3. Overhead Electrical System: Contain details of overhead high/medium/low voltage conductor, pole, circuit breaker, fuse, transformer, group meter, high tension meter, etc.
4. Underground Electrical System: Contain details of underground high/medium/low voltage conductor, underground streetlight conductor, manhole, duct bank, etc.
5. Optical Fiber System: Contain details of fiber optic cable, fiber rack, fiber room, fiber slack loop, fiber building, etc.
FFM (Field Force Management) is a system that help to improve efficiency of MEA's fieldwork staff to fix electrical problems quickly from customer complaint with MEA Smart Life Application and Call Center. The FFM system are connected to SAP and GIS for the following benefits.
1. Schedule & Dispatch work orders/calls based on the proximity of crews with event site
2. Take demand Reference based on integration of FFM & GIS (Such as Hospital, Industrial Estate)
3. Record customer satisfaction feedback, work order, asset requisition
4. Generate the reports from historical outages, outage call, customer satisfaction feedback
5. Check overdue balance from meter number
In the future, we will develop FFM system to support smart grid technology be connecting with this following system
1. Outage Management System: To receive analysis and notification of power outages from smart meter, TLM meter and SCADA/EMS/DMS.
2. MEA Smart Life application and MEA Line connect: To report power outage status to customer
MEA has private optical fiber network and data center. The optical fiber network of MEA covers the whole responsible area which are Bangkok, Nonthaburi and Samut Prakan over 32,000 km.
MEA has been granted a license to operate Type 3 of Telecom Licenses from the Office of The National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission (the “NBTC") and has offered a service to other state enterprise sectors in rental or connecting the unused MEA network with stability, quality, and service as our priorities.
MEA has multi-network technology consisting of IP technology, Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technology, and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) technology to separate each of services like front office, back office, power system, security, help desk support, high priority network, and bring your own device (BYOD) network. In the future, MEA will change to software-defined networking (SDN) from multi-network technology. The SDN benefits are centralized management of the entire network, scalability, optimizing hardware devices.
MEA has Security Operations Center (SOC) and Network Operation Center (NOC) facility that can offer performance monitoring features to manage security and network over 24/7 for prevention and detection of internet and email threats.
AMI for Low Voltage Monitoring, PV Monitoring, and Outage Monitoring
Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is one of the subsystems in Smart Meter Grid pilot project, which has an important component is Smart Meter, AMI can help MEA improve the power quality at low voltage level. There are functions of the system as follows:
1. PV Monitoring: Smart Meter can detect a reverse current event and inform MEA that there is an unauthorized PV customer installation.
2. Voltage Monitoring: Due to the increasing installation of Solar PV, it impacts the voltage level. Therefore, MEA can manage reactive power to control the voltage by using On-Load Tap Charging Transformer (OLTC) with distribution transformer.
3. Outage Monitoring: Traditional, when the outages were occurred, MEA has sent the operational staff to find where the outages were. These lead to transportation costs and operating costs. At present, Smart Meter can detect the outage and send the event signal to inform MEA staff immediately which helps MEA reduce those costs.
Smart Metro Grid Project consists of the data analytics application projects as follows:
1. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) Project
This project comprises the replacement of existing mechanical and electronic watt-hour meters by smart meters and the installation of communication links among them. It thus allows automatic reading of energy usages and also facilitates the energy management inside the customers' premises. A total of 33,265 sets of smart meters have been purchased for the Smart Metro Grid Project. A communication system of smart meter is radio frequency mesh (RF Mesh) in the range 442.5-443.5 MHz and 447.5-448.5 MHz, the Smart Grid spectrum in Thailand, allocated and approved by The National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission (NBTC). Besides, there were also the installation of smart meters that have already been installed from the other projects such as the Smart Meter Installation Project for Customers Category 3, 4 and 5 of 8,250 sets, the replacement of Time of Use Energy Metering (TOU) by Smart Meter Installation Project of 14,981 sets. When combined with the Smart Metro Grid Project, the number of smart meters in MEA's service area will cover 56,496 customers. MEA can retrieve data from these smart meters to perform Data Analytics to determine energy loss, in both Technical Loss and Non-Technical Loss, electricity theft, and for planning purposes to expand or improve the power grid and services such as reducing human error, reporting on the location and status of power outages, enabling quick restoration and repair, cooperating with Demand Response, and etc. In 2021, MEA installed 21,497 sets of Smart Meter completely.
2. Transformer Load Monitoring (TLM) Project
This project is the distribution transformer load monitoring system applied to optimize usage, analyze its performance and alert the malfunctioning of distribution transformers.
3. Outage Management System (OMS) Project
This system is applied to manage customer outage by analyzing the electrical interruption data from various equipment in the distribution system, either in the substation or in the feeders, via the SCADA/EMS/DMS information system. These data when combined with those from smart meters will help to quickly resolve the electrical interruption. The system also integrated high-voltage, medium-voltage and low-voltage data to enhance electrical interruption correction to an Advanced DMS.
4. Load Aggreagator Management System (LAMS) Project
This system is the management system that facilitates MEA to act as a load aggregator. This project is aligned with government policy on Demand Response to manage electricity demand in metropolitan area. Its task is in co-operation with EGAT's Demand Response Control Center (DRCC). The ultimate goal for this project is to reduce maximum demand by 100 MW in MEA service area Including helping defer the investment of generation plants.
5. ICT Integration Project
This project integrates an information and communication technology to improve communication and exchange of information between various work systems used within MEA such as the existing systems, SCADA/EMS/DMS, ERP, Geographic Information System (GIS), Smart Life Application and Systems in Smart Metro Grid Project. The security standard is benchmarking against NERC CIP enabling organizations to plan, prevent, detect and respond to threats in a timely manner.
Before AMI implementation occurred, MEA has realized that AMI data generates electricity usage which unlocks more advanced operational services such as Outage Management Systems (OMS), Demand Response (DR), etc. Therefore, MEA designs the IT-OT integrated architecture of Data Analytics, which is as shown on the figure below.
The use case as required in Smart Metro Grid are:
1. Revenue Protection (Tamper Detection)
At present, MEA has attempted to reduce non-payment and non-technical losses. In a non-payment case, the conventional process of MEA is to send the MEA staff to connect and disconnect the meter of customers who pay the overdue bill. Whereas non-technical loss makes MEA lose revenue. To reduce those issues, MEA has decided to implement the AMI to recover the revenue from those issues. The benefits of implementing the AMI are as follows.
· Decreased Connection and Disconnection Cost
· Decreased Non-technical Losses
· Decreased Cost of Manual Meter Reading Activities
· Decreased Labor Cost
· Decreased Transportation Cost
2. Outage Management
MEA is installing Transformer Load Monitoring meters (TLM Meters) at distribution transformers to monitor measurement value and status with TLM software, which is a module of Smart Metro Grid Project. TLM Software can analyze the power outage by using these following functions:
· Unbalanced Voltage and Load Calulation: TLM Software will calculate voltage unbalance & load unbalance from transformer usage data and notify on dashboard
· Voltage Drop: In case of transformer voltage drop > 60% of rated voltage (Percent of voltage drop can be adjust), TLM Software will send outage alert to Outage Management System
· Transformer Load Monitoring and Alarm: In case of transformer UF >= 100%, TLM Software will notify transformer overload to MEA officer via Email and SMS
3. Demand Response
MEA has Load Aggregator Management System aligned with government policy on Demand Response to support reducing electricity demand when peak period.
4. Renewable Energy Voltage Monitor
Smart Meters and TLM meters can monitor voltage value to detect under-voltage and over-voltage, which impact on the electrical appliances of customers. Alarms will be notified to MEA officer via Email and SMS.
5. Loss Management
MEA attempts to improve grid efficiency and network management by implementing both smart meters and TLM meters to reduce power losses, which are consisted of technical loss and non-technical loss.
6. Network Planning
Due to the continuous load growth, MEA faces the challenges to predict the load growth in each distribution feeder. As a result of this case, MEA decided to install "Transformer Load Monitoring" (TLM) for precise network planning to improve grid reliability and reduce the capital expenditure investment to avoid oversizing of the network. The TLM monitoring example display is as shown on the figure below.
Smart Energy Data Analytics Center Project
This project is a data analysis center that collects all Smart Meter data from customers equipped with Solar PV and charging stations connected to MEA distribution grid. It will be able to provide results online, analyze electricity consumption and forecast future energy usage trend of Renewable Energy and charging station. These data will be also used in electricity management system.
MEA developed, reviewed and expanded the power distribution system to cater to the increasing electricity demand and continued strengthening the stability and reliability of the system by adopting modern technology, providing service to fully cover MEA's service area, supporting the Maximum Demand of 9,077.74 MW and the total energy purchased from EGAT and VSPP was 51,645.57 GWh as of 2021 with the System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI) of 0.746 times per customer per year as of December 2021 and the System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI) of 24.474 minutes per customer per year as of December 2021.
Automatic function is applied as automatic load transfer function which can be implemented in case of power outage at transmission system as follows:
1. Line Throwover Scheme (LTO)
At high voltage level, this function automatically operates to transfer load between Prefer Line and Emergency Line. In case of power outage on prefer line, LTO operates for 0.3 seconds before transferring load. In this process of operation, this causes momentary interruption to customers on Prefer Line.
2. Coupler Throwover Scheme (CTO)
At high voltage level, this function automatically operates at BUS level by transferring load of BUS A or B to Line A or B. In case of outage on Line A connected to BUS A, CTO will operate for 0.3 seconds before transferring load. In this process of operation, it causes momentary interruption to customer on BUS A.
3. Line Transfer function (LTF)
At high voltage level, this function automatically operates to transfer load between Line A and Line B for In-Line(series) scheme substation. In case of power outage on at Line A connected to Substation A, LTF will operate for 0.3 seconds before transferring load. In this process of operation, it causes momentary interruption to customer on Substation A.
4. Bus Throwover Scheme (BTO)
At medium voltage level, This function automatically operates to transfer load of BAY1 or 2 to Power transformer No.1 or 2. In case of outage at on Power transformer No.1 connected to BAY 1, BTO will operate for 5 seconds before transferring load. In this process of operation, it causes momentary interruption to customer on BAY1.
Total Quality Management (TQM) approach (Supply Reliability)
MEA has quality management in testing, inspection, and improvement from Feeder Management Project to maintain assets and increase system reliability. Feeder Management is a project that applies the in-house PM feeder mobile application or web browser in the figure below to inspect feeder line in distribution system. PM Feeder Application can measure the efficiency of inspection and improvement of the feeder line individually which is categorized by MEA district, industrial estate and over all of MEA area.
The program will bring failure point as input data to compare with the number of power outages in each MEA district (Sustained Interruption & Momentary Interruption) and create dashboard to track performance and efficiency of the selected feeder line improvements. Finally, the success of this project has resulted in a reduction in power system reliability (SAIFI and SAIDI) compared to the previous year.
Smart device for distribution feeder system
Nowadays, MEA has applied the smart devices to 12/24 kV distribution feeder by replacing the existing protection and disconnecting devices. These smart devices not only assist to improve the reliability indices but also mark the position of the fault point to the operator for urgent maintenance to restore the power at those feeders.
1. Load Break Switch with FRTU: is a kind of switch with Feeder Remote Terminal Unit (FRTU). The traditional disconnecting switch is replaced by this device to remotely on-load operate. The fault point in feeder can be positioned via Distribution Management System (DMS). By application of this device, the duration of power outage at the customers can be reduce significantly. The comparison between traditional device and this device is shown in the table below.
Table: Comparison for Traditional device and Smart device installed in main feeder.
2. Sectionalizer: is applied to replace drop out fuse in lateral feeder. This device can isolate the permanent fault from the distribution system. In case the occurrence of temporary fault, this device causes only momentary interruption and still continuously delivers the power to the customers. The comparison functions of Drop out fuse, Sectionalizer is shown in table.
Table: Comparation for Tradition and Smart device installed in lateral feeder.
LV automatic detection
In the past, when outages occur, MEA needed to dispatch staff to find outage locations in each feeder. After AMI and TLM have been implemented, MEA can improve response and recovery time in the outage events. Meanwhile, EV adoption is increasing which potentially impacts on unbalancing of the grid when charging or discharging. AMI and TLM will come to solve this issue as well. This capability impact on customer satisfaction.
Implementation of Grid Code improvements
Due to the increase of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) penetration to distribution system, MEA needs to review and revise its grid code in order to allow the electricity producers connected to the distribution system with high security, safety and stability.
The pilot project of MEA Microgrid System
1. Smart District Phase 2
It is the expansion project of Smart District Office which used 30 kWh/125 kW of Energy Storage System (ESS) by adding 1 set of 500 kWh/300 kW of Energy Storage System to back up load of the whole building. As well as to monitor real-time and control of microgrids in service areas for supporting micro grid systems and future expansion of alternative renewable energy. There are functions for this system as the follows: Peak shaving function, Load leveling, PV smoothing and Voltage Control Function.
2. Metro Micro Grid
It is the project for installation of 1.8 MWh / 1 MW medium voltage energy storage system at waste to energy power plant to back up load of the surrounding area. Also, it makes a balance for generation system and reserve power system when outage or peak load period. There are functions for this system as the following: Black start function, Peak shaving function, PV Smoothing function, Load Shedding, Frequency Control function, Voltage Control Function and Energy management/ Load forecast/Generation forecast.
Energy Storage System Pilot Project
1. Pathumwan substation
It is the project for installation of 1.2 MWh/ 2 MW medium voltage energy storage system. There are two functions for this system: Load Leveling for reducing maximum demand and Back Up to always support power demand and electric energy in the event when the main grid is temporarily down. This could help to maintain stability and reliability of power system. The energy storage system is installed at PM 26 feeder of Pathumwan substation with an aim to accommodate the rising trend of renewable energy in the distribution system.
2. MEA Building at Bangpood Sub-district, Pak Kret District, Nonthaburi
It is the project for installation of 300 - 1,000 kWh/500 kW of Energy Storage System (ESS) including installation of 500 kWh of Solar rooftop at MEA factory. There are functions for this system as follows: Load Leveling, Peak Shaving, Capacity Firming, Back-up Power or Spinning Reserve, Demand Response, Power Quality Improvement and Energy Arbitrage.
The pilot project of Building Energy Management System connects MEA's office with the Smart Grid System (BEMS/FEMS with DR).
The objective is to ensure that the Building Energy Management System (BEMS) complies with demand response of the load control prototype for air conditioning in the building. It also helps to reduce the demand for electricity (Negawatt) during peak time thus curtailing the need to building new power plants to support peak demand. The project was completed in September 2019 at the Metropolitan Electricity Authority, Rat Burana District. At present, MEA has expanded the project to in 2 district offices of MEA, namely the MEA Klong Toei District and MEA Bang Khunthian District.
The pilot project to increase injection of Renewable Energy to On-Load Tap Changing distribution transformer at SENA Village.
The project is implemented to develop and improve the power grid to support Renewable Energy penetration by installing one set of 500 kVA onload tap changing (OLTC) distribution transformer in SENA Park Villa, RAMINTRA village. The OLTC mechanism will allow an efficient control of voltage level in low voltage distribution system to meet the MEA standards.
With greater awareness of the escalating energy crisis and environmental issues, energy and environmental conservation have therefore become important missions for MEA to continue to work together and cooperate with other agencies, both in public and private sectors, to develop and expand the use of renewable energy as follows and the total energy sales for renewable energy is 322.534GWh (not included the self-consumption energy) as of 2021.
Electricity purchase from Waste-to-Energy plants
Following the Power Development Plan: PDP2018 to promote the generation of electricity from waste incineration and the purchase of electricity generated from municipal solid waste (MSW). In 2021, MEA has prepared the Grid Capacity data to allow for network connection in its distribution area. This leads to the electricity purchase from 4 Waste-to-Energy plants namely Nong Khaem, Bang Pu Mai, Racha Thewa and Praksa Mai with an installed capacity of 22.34 MW and contracted capacity of 19.6 MW. It is expected that in 2021, there will be additional electricity from waste injected into the grid from 2 projects with the capacity of 8 MW.
The Household Solar Scheme
MEA has driven the government's policy to pilot the purchase of electricity from the household solar scheme by opening for online applications from residential customers in MEA's distribution area via the website below. Application period started from May 24, 2019 until the amount of 30 MW is taken up. The purchase price is 2.2 baht/unit. In 2021, the MEA signed the purchase contract with 770 participants (4.2 MW).
Reference: https://spv.mea.or.thThe community power plant project for the foundation economy
Following the government policies of electricity, the framework of the Thailand Power Development Plan 2018-2037 (PDP2018), there is a target to purchase electricity (1,933 MW) from the community power plant project, including focusing on the production of electricity in the community according to the potential of clean energy fuel available in the area. Furthermore, people are able to access to the power of electricity thoroughly and gain a reasonable price. Therefore, MEA opens an application for very small power producers (VSPP) who are interested in participating in the project via the website below by divided into two groups namely Adder/FiT and Self Consumption, which are as shown on the table:
MEA EV Application
To facilitate electric vehicle users, MEA developed “MEA EV", an application on both iOS and Android operating systems to meet the modern city lifestyle. The application has two channels (Web application and Mobile application) and helps to locate charging stations of MEA and Electric Vehicle Association of Thailand (EVAT), along with direction to the charging station on GIS maps in conjunction with Google Application navigation. The application can also reserve charging stations, operate and monitor the status of electric chargers in power stations or charging stations registered with MEA. There are currently 15 charging stations in operation and there are plans to expand the charging stations to serve in MEA's distribution area.
MEA Open Smart Charging Platform
MEA Open Smart Charging Platform is an energy management system within charging stations for electric vehicles by responding to power demand in real time through automatic control of increase or decrease of the current of each charger within the stations so as to be suitable for the dimension of electrical equipment, power demand management, stabilization of power distribution system, resulting in maximum efficiency in engineering and economics. MEA has developed MEA Open Smart Charging Platform by expansion and linking data system of MEA On-line Load Monitoring (MEA-OLM) project and Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) and Management System project. This innovation in 2018 is intended as a tool for stabilizing the power distribution system and is used to further support the related business operations of MEA and charging station operators for electric vehicles.
Various projects related to Electric Vehicles
Currently, 15 charging stations have been installed in MEA's service area and 51 chargers are operating within MEA. In this regard, a pilot project on Smart Charging was launched to manage the distribution transformer loads and chargers at various areas namely.
1. 16 chargers in MEA district offices in 18 areas.
2. 4 chargers at 7-11
3. 2 chargers at Dhanarak Asset Development Co., Ltd.
4. 2 chargers at THER Condominium (LADPRAO 93)
5. In the process of purchasing 18 Normal chargers for installation in MEA district offices in 18 areas.
6. In the process of purchasing 9 Quick chargers for the replacement of old chargers.
The memorandum of understanding (MOU) on preparation of EV Chargers installation for MG's customers in accordance with the government policy to encourage the use of electric vehicle in Thailand.
Furthermore, MEA has collaborated with many partner companies, which are as follows: EA ANYWHERE, CPALL, Nissan, Mitsubishi, EVAT, DELTA and THER
A regulation for EV Charging station connecting to grid and the installation of EV Charger
Following the government's policy driving an electric vehicle (EV), as a result, MEA has attempted to develop the regulation for EV Charging station connecting to grid and the installation of EV Charger. Since 2017, MEA has formally published the regulation for EV Charging station connecting to grid and the installation of EV Charger to support the government's policy and ensure people use electric vehicle as link in Thai language.
A research of MEA EV Smart Charing System Project
MEA supported the government and private sector who were interested in participating in the research of MEA EV Smart Charing System Project. The purpose of this project is to support the installation of charging station and support people to use Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). MEA would support 50 free charging stations with 2 years warranty. who interested could enroll via the website below.
Fixed Rate Tariff for EV Charging Station
Following the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) applying an appropriate charging rates for EV Charging Station (Low priority load), as as result, MEA has formally published the tariff for EV Charging Station in 2021 and will be applied for 2 years or until a new tariff is announced by ERC as link in Thai language.
MEA has developed the Smart Grid system to move the energy industry into a new era of reliability, availability, and efficiency that will contribute to our economic and environmental health. From MEA's point of view, Smart Grid is an electrical system infrastructure integrated with ICT (Information and Communications Technology), which means MEA must prepare for a massive communication and computing network, millions of edge devices, and enormous data and information. MEA always realized the value and importance of data. So, cyber security is essential.
Therefore, MEA has created the risk management guideline, which was reviewed in response to both internal and external changes, used as practice guideline both at the organization and operational levels, and demonstrated the linkage between the risk management and other work processes as well as published within the organization through the Risk Management Department's website.
MEA has developed an information system, MEA GRC, a system that integrates related tasks, consisting of 3 modules: risk management module, internal control module, and internal audit module by collecting risk information to be a database for analyzing historical data and forecasting possibilities and potential impacts in the future as well as monitoring the progress of the risk management plan on a monthly/quarterly basis, being enable to monitor and control the performance of the risk management plan effectively. Which are as follow.
External threats prevention
A firewall is the security system of computers on a network. It performs the function of checking the information that goes in and out of the network. The rules will be set to control access to prevent unauthorized connections mostly coming from the Internet, including LAN (Local Area Network).
An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a system that identifies suspicious and malicious activity through network traffic (for example, computer viruses). If the IDS finds any suspicious and malicious activities, it will notify the system administrator.
An Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) is a system that detects and prevents identified threats. It proactively blocks malicious traffics from entering the network.
3. Mail Gateway
A Mail gateway will identify spam emails, viruses, and malware attached to the email and reject or quarantine them.
4. Advanced Persistent Threats (APT)
An Advanced Persistent Threats is a system capable of detecting and preventing advanced threats from malware, zero-day, and advanced malware that come from websites and email.
5. Web Application Firewall (WAF)
A Web Application Firewall (WAF) is a device that protects web applications from several types of attacks such as cross-site forgery, cross-site-scripting (XSS), file inclusion, and SQL injection. WAF will analyze whether the traffic is malicious or not. If the traffic is malicious, WAF will prevent such traffic from attacking the website or hacking the system.
6. Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)
A Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) protection is application-level protection. DDoS protection uses filters to prevent malicious attempts to disrupt critical services of the server. It prevents web-based attacks by detecting and decreasing HTTP flood DDoS attacks. By quickly controlling the traffic, the service will be available without interruption.
Internal threats prevention & Security Operation Center (SOC)
1. Network Access Control (NAC)
A Network Access Control (NAC) is a system that controls the access with various permissions to the network according to security policies such as authentication, access rights to servers and printers, the rights to use a specific protocol, software installation, and patching.
2. Centralized Log
A Centralized Log system is centralized log management that manages and stores logfile from server computers and network devices such as Firewall, Router, Ethernet Switch, Windows Server, Linux Server, Web Server, and Application Server.
3. Security Information & Event Management (SIEM)
A Security Information & Event Management (SIEM) system is a system that collects and analyzes enterprise network security data to investigate threats and offenses. Also, the data will be a source for developing the organization's compliance policy. The data to be analyzed are logs from network security devices, network devices, and computing systems.
An antivirus is a computer program to detects, prevents, and eliminates computer threats such as malware, viruses, worms, trojan horses, spyware, adware, and various software threats.
2. Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR)
Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR) is an integrated endpoint security solution that monitors and detects any suspicious activities or incidents at the endpoint in real-time to provide a detailed timeline of the threats and real-time alerts when the endpoint is under attack.
Moreover, MEA give priority to an information security management system (ISMS) by implementing ISO/IEC 27001:2013 including MEA security complies with NERC CIP, NIST-800 standards, Cyber Security Act, and Personal Data Protection Act to manage an information security including requirements and risk assessment to prevent problems from the use of incorrect information systems and being threatened by various threats both inside and outside the organization.
In addition, the operational risks have been monitored and reviewed according to changing situations and factors which might affect business operations. Which are categorized as follows:
To change overhead lines into underground cables
The Replacement of Overhead Lines by Underground Cables Project is the long-term project that requires a large amount of investment, which is important and has impact on many groups of stakeholders. Therefore, there is a need for continuous risk management by following the operation of integrated construction plan with external organizations, which has prepared a memorandum of agreement to establish a working group for the construction integration of The Replacement of Overhead Lines by Underground Cables Project between MEA and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration in order to reduce process and time for coordination as well as increase operational efficiency. In addition, MEA added channels for reporting risks that may affect the construction of overhead lines into underground cables, the status and obstacles of the project to the team in the department to make decisions and solve any problems that may arise as well as the ability to adjust the operation plan in a timely manner. In addition, knowledge will be collected to solve problems and obstacles, and to be used in process improvement for other projects.
Risks related to information technology system security
The current advancement of information technology systems has led MEA to adapt to digital operations by increasing the proportion of information technology systems usage to address constraints in conventional operations and improve process to meet the needs of electric customers that may increase the likelihood of risk on attack on the security of information technology systems. In particular, data exchange or access to more IoT (Internet of Thing) devices that will be used in the future such that adequate security must be provided because external devices cannot be thoroughly secured, and it is also used as an attack target to interfere with core systems. Therefore, MEA has to prepare by increasing preventive measure both cyber and physical attacks, installing Security Operation Center (SOC) system to prevent and detect internet and email threats, and raise awareness among employees as well as develop Information Security and Communication Security Policy Improvement Plan for IoT in Distribution Systems by establishing MEA Computer Security Incident Response Team (MEA CSIRT) to formulate Incident Handling Flow that may arise, including the appointment of a working group to review / revise the security policy and standards for information and communication technology systems for IoT in the distribution system to study information and related standards for application, and improved the policy and guidelines on MEA information security to cover more IoT technology systems. In addition, the group also participated in field exercises at the Army Cyber Center, Royal Thai Armed Forces Headquarters, to develop competency and train the coordination of both passive and proactive cyber warfare with the personnel of the Army Cyber Center, the Threat Enforcement Agency, and the Critical Information Infrastructure (CII).
Risk related to electricity system stability
The MEA has continuously created the stability of the power system in order to create reliability and satisfaction for the customers. Therefore, data is collected and analyzed to assess risk of vulnerable point in the power system that came from various causes such as substation equipment, threats, etc., and have a handling guidelines by developing the preparation plan in case of power failure in large area in response to incidents. MEA has reviewed the maintenance plan of the relevant substation and expedited the maintenance of electrical equipment of the substation, including a comprehensive emergency plan in case of equipment failure to cover every case, and the maintenance plan for transformer and power distribution equipment, monitor substation improvement task as well as consider to improve efficiency and productivity of the power distribution.
Security and privacy of customer data
· No data leaks due to theft or loss of customer information.
· No complaints from the organization's stakeholders, including regulators, which are confirmed by the organization.
Information technology system plays a key role in driving MEA to upgrade its services to international level and being a digital organization in line with the government policy and lifestyle of urban people who want convenience and speed. However, the rapidly evolving information technology system causes corporate information management system to be exposed to the risk of cyber threats such as corporate data breaches, theft of customer data, etc. Furthermore, nowadays the government policies place greater emphasis on the development of information technology system, together with information security. Besides, the customers are more aware of and pay attention to the handling of privacy and personal information, making information security management a key issue in services and maintaining confidence. Therefore, MEA strictly complies with legal requirements, regulations and standards on the protection of customer personal information so as to ensure that there will be no risk of customer privacy information leaks.
· International standard ISO / IEC 27001: 2013 (Information Security Management System Standard) or ISMS (Information Security Management System)
· Regulations of the Prime Minister's Office on National Cybersecurity Preparation Committee 2017
· MEA Strategy: Strategy 4 (Enabler)
· Establishment of information security policies and practices.
MEA has formulated 6 related policy elements, including
1) policy on access control and use of information systems
2) policy on creating backup system of information system
3) policy on information check and risk assessment
4) policy on information security management and raising awareness about information security
5) policy on computer network resource management and information systems
6) policy on preventing threats to computer network and information systems
· Measures to control the operations of departments and employees
· Quality hardware and software supply for use in the organization
· Plan to manage the continuity of information technology system regarding Discontinuance of Information Technology System) and leaks of customer privacy information (Customer Privacy)
Process of formulating data quality control measures and information technology system
MEA has used the approach based on ISO / IEC27001: 2013 standard which emphasizes 3 main principles, namely Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability, together with analysis of the risks of information technology system and important information so as to set measures / plans, indicators for managing the use of accurate, reliable, timely, secure and confidential information for current and future needs in response to government policies and corporate strategies. Additionally, in order to ensure information security of MEA, a plan is available for checking and assessing information risks annually.
MEA monitors security devices and endpoints daily, then summarizes the results monthly. If there is an unusual event or threat, an alert will be sent via email to the security administrator to troubleshoot the problems. The security administrator will follow the guideline depending on the type of threat (e.g., phishing Mail, DDoS attack) as follows:
· Follow the threat/incident guidelines, e.g., turn off network connections, investigate sources, examine the impact of attacks, coordinate with the department involved to troubleshoot the problems, and draw a conclusion.
· Notify involved system administrators, including Cyber Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT) committees.
· Execute the Incident Response Plan (IRP) or follow the Business Continuity Plan (BCP).
· Complete the Incident Response Plan form. Summarize the threat/incident and the solutions.
· Do After-action Review (AAR) to eliminate the risks and establish Knowledge Management (KM). So, if this threat/incident occurs in the future, we can rectify it more quickly.
Examples of measures for managing quality and security of information and knowledge of MEA
Features of hardware and software
Formulating and operating through information management process to provide reliable, secure and easy to use hardware and software with selection criteria according to world-class international standards, including established indicators and target of quality control of hardware, software system. The performance has been in line with the target.
Building awareness of employees
MEA established a plan and conducted activities to raise awareness of information technology security in the organization of the year 2019 for employees to acknowledge the policy, laws and practices on information security and understand various threats hidden through the Internet and e-mail, along with promotion of IT Security Awareness through the following activities.
Organizing training and seminar activities to raise awareness about the safe use of information system by requiring the trainees to have at least 100% of the training period and have the results of knowledge, understanding evaluation not lower than 80%. The target groups cover senior management, employees of all work groups and contracted employees.
Dissemination of technical knowledge, news and advice
Organizing activities to educate people about the laws, protection against technological threats and the use of social media in daily life as follows.
(1) Organizing the program on a monthly basis through wired audio system 1 day a week and using the answers to the questions at the end of the program to create participation of MEA employees and contracted employees
(2) Preparing Infographic media for publicity through website within the organization
Customer Empowerment & Satisfaction
MEA initiated new projects to meet the needs and enhance satisfaction of customers. To ensure that MEA can support the customers throughout MEA service area, MEA has provided and developed services, which are divided into 2 channels.
1. Offline Platform consists of MEA Official, Call Center, Counter Service.
2. Digital Platform consists of Website, e-Bill Application, M-Easy Application, MEA Smart life Application, LINE MEA Connect, MEA E-Fix Application, MEA EV Application, Facebook, Twitter, Email, Line Application.
Smart Service Highlights
1. e-Bill service, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, MEA has developed E-Bill Application for customers to receive the Electricity bill via SMS or Email. A registration is taken a few steps. Therefore, Customers can easily register for this service and this application can support our customers to easily check their bills by not making paper waste to the environment.
2. MEASY (pronounced M-EASY) system provides the various types of service including register for security deposit refund, getting electricity for a newly person, changing meter size, temporary meter cut off and reconnection request via the website below.
3. MEA Smart Life Application is an application, which includes all electrical services and connects to MEASY system to check load profile and electricity bill including be able to pay the electricity bill via credit card. Moreover, this application can inform outage and message to the customer.
4. Omni Channel service development plan to connect all MEA channels, including Metropolitan Electricity Authority Districts, Application or Website to be the same platform.
5. E-service / Digital system development plan for electricity consumer service, including Smart service station. The service process has been designed toward Digital Service and Back Office system has been streamlined to be Automate Process so as to meet the needs of customers and society that is moving towards the digital age in 2 pilot areas, viz. Metropolitan Electricity Authority Thonburi District and Ratburana District.
6. For customers in industrial estates, MEA has developed, improved electricity quality and services through Service Package Project or MEA Now Project with the development of MEA Ambassador to be able to reach service users in industrial estates and potential customers more effectively.
7. For related business customers, Web application development plan is available, which enables customers to track the progress of transactions more easily.
8. MEA has provided map service not only internal departments but also external agencies. This concept has led to expanding the scope of providing map data to the public and other agencies. This is the starting point for MEA Map Service API to provide opportunities for people to access to electrical mapping services.
· Data Service:
Basemap data service and electrical system data service that providing land base and electrical data with APIs.
· MAP Service:
Basemap map service and electrical system map service that providing electrical map with location and dimension in Vector Tiles & Raster Tiles.
Additionally, MEA reviewed and revised the customer service process. The example of major operations of Business and industrial customers are follows.
Access to information of customers and people
Currently, the lifestyle of customers and people in urban society requires convenience and speed, including the need for timely and equitable access to information. MEA is an organization that operates power system with an aim to improve the quality of life of stakeholders equally. Therefore, MEA cares about the presentation of information about the organization's products / services, important news, including information on the efficient and safe use of electricity in line with the Life-style and the differences in access of stakeholders.
· Operation in accordance with the approach for communication and dissemination of government information such as the Official Information Act 1997, Ministerial Regulations prescribing the rules, methods and conditions for accessing and utilizing information, communication, telecommunication service, information and communication technology, communication facility technology and public service for the disabled 2011, etc.
· W3G's WCAG 2.0 standard from the Ministry of Digital Economy and Society.
MEA has disseminated news information with care to all stakeholders. In 2018-2019, the model, channels and the content of disseminating news as well as useful knowledge of electricity were reviewed and developed through various activities and channels. The examples are as follows.
MEA has identified the organization's stakeholders through organizational assessment process according to criteria of State Enterprise Performance Appraisal (SEPA). The results of consideration have revealed 7 groups, namely customers, people, policy regulators, main suppliers, trade partners, cooperation partners and employees. MEA focuses on listening to the voices of all stakeholders equally by adhering to the principles of fairness, equality and examination of various benefits other than protection of basic rights so as to know the needs and the issues emphasized by stakeholders.
Customer engagement is a major element that allows the organization to understand the expectations / needs of people related to the organization holistically. This enables the organization to establish operational guidelines that take into account positive and negative impacts and prevent the potential risks from the treatment of customer correctly and comprehensively. MEA has created engagement with customer through various channels and has responded to. The operational results are as detailed below.
MEA conducts the Customer satisfaction index survey every year.
In 2019, Percentage of core business satisfaction 85.5%
In 2020, Percentage of core business satisfaction 83.09%
In 2021, Percentage of core business satisfaction 85.59%
The result of Ease of Doing Business
The Doing Business project, which is ranked based on 11 indicators by World Bank, provides objective measures of business regulations and their enforcement across 190 economies. One of Eleven indicators is "Getting Electricity", which was evaluated based on procedures (number), Time (days), Cost (% income per capita), and Reliability of electricity supply. MEA's getting electricity indicator ranking of the ease of doing business report was 6th.